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  2. पाठ- 2 अपभ्रंश भाषा की व्याकरणिक इकाइयाँ वर्ण (Alphabets) :- 1. स्वर (vowels) - जिन अक्षरों के उच्चारण के लिए अन्य वर्णों की सहायता नहीं चाहिए होती | अपभ्रंश में स्वर 8 होते हैं - अ , आ , इ , ई , उ , ऊ, ए , ओ | 2. व्यंजन (consonants)- जिनके उच्चारण में की सहायता लेनी पड़ती है | क, ख, ग, घ च , छ, ज, झ ट , ठ , ड , ढ , ण त , थ , द , ध , न प , फ, ब , भ , म य , र, ल , व स , ह अनुस्वार- बिंदी लगाईं जाती है वो अनुस्वार होता है - ां | जैसे - अंग अनुनासिक- चंद्र बिंदु अनुनासिक है - ाँ | जैसे - चाँद शब्द - संज्ञा (Nouns) सर्वनाम (Pronouns) विशेषण (Adjectives) क्रिया (verbs) अव्यय कारक संज्ञा- किसी वस्तु, व्यक्ति, जाति,भाव, स्थान के नाम को संज्ञा कहते हैं | जैसे राम, रुक्ख (वृक्ष) आदि | संज्ञा शब्दों के अपभ्रंश में तीन लिंग ( Gender) होते हैं- 1.पुल्लिंग 2.नपुंसकलिंग 3.स्त्रीलिंग सर्वनाम- संज्ञा के स्थान पर जिन शब्दों का प्रयोग होता है वे सर्वनाम होते हैं | जैसे- मैं, तुम, यह, वह आदि | पुरुष एकवचन बहुवचन उत्तम पुरुष ( मैं ) हउं (हम सब) अम्हे मध्यम पुरुष (तुम) तुहुं (तुम सब) तुम्हइं अन्य पुरुष वह - सो ( पुल्लिंग) , सा (स्त्रीलिंग) आदि | वे सब ते ( पुल्लिंग) ता ( स्त्रीलिंग) आदि | विशेषण - जो शब्द संज्ञा या सर्वनाम की विशेषता बताते हैं | जैसे- सुंदर ,थिर (स्थिर) आदि | क्रिया - जिन शब्दों से किसी कार्य का होना या करना प्रकट हो | जैसे - हस ( हँसना ), सय ( सोना), ठा (ठहरना) | अव्यय - जो शब्द सभी लिंग, वचन, कारक में सामान रहें परिवर्तन नहीं होता | जैसे- सया ( सदा, हमेशा), णहि ( नहीं), वि (भी )| काल - क्रिया के जिस रूप में क्रिया के होने का पता चले उसे काल कहते हैं | अपभ्रंश में 4 काल हैं - 1.वर्तमान काल- क्रिया का वह रूप जिससे पता चले कि कार्य अभी हुआ है | जैसे- सोता है, जागता है आदि | 2.भूत काल - क्रिया का वह रूप जिससे पता चले कि कार्य पहले हुआ था | जैसे- नाचता था , जाता था आदि | 3.भविष्य काल- क्रिया का वह रूप जिससे पता चले कि कार्य भविष्य में होगा| जैसे- जाऊँगा, खायेगा आदि | 4.विधि एवं आज्ञा काल - जब किसी कार्य के लिए प्रार्थना की जाती है, तथा आदेश एवं उपदेश दिया जाता है तो इन भावों को प्रकट करने के लिए विधि एवं आज्ञा काल की क्रिया का रूप प्रयोग में लाया जाता है | कारक - जो शब्द संज्ञा एवं सर्वनाम का अन्य शब्दों से सम्बन्ध बताएं वो कारक कहलाते हैं | अपभ्रंश में 8 कारक होते हैं- 1. कर्ता 2. कर्म 3. करण 4. सम्प्रदान 5.अपादान 6. सम्बन्ध 7. अधिकरण 8.सम्बोधन | कारक को विभक्तियों के माध्यम से पहचाना जाता है - कारक एकवचन बहुवचन कर्ता राजा ने राजाओं ने कर्म राजा को राजाओं को करण राजा से / के द्वारा राजाओं से / के द्वारा सम्प्रदान राजा के लिए राजाओं के लिए अपादान राजा से (अलग) राजाओं से (अलग) सम्बन्ध राजा का/ के/ की राजाओं का / के/ की अधिकरण राजा में,पर राजाओं में,पर सम्बोधन हे राजा हे राजाओं अपभ्रंश में सम्प्रदान कारक (चौथी विभक्ति),सम्बन्ध कारक ( छठी विभक्ति) के सामान रूप होते हैं |
  3. शैक्षिक सशक्तिकरण (educational empowerment) Scholarship Schemes Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme Post-matric Scholarship Scheme Merit-cum-Means Scholarship Scheme Maulana Azad National Fellowship (MANF) Scheme of Interest Subsidy on Educational Loan for Overseas Studies Free Coaching and Allied Scheme Nai Udaan - Clearing Prelims conducted by UPSC , SSC, SPSC आर्थिक सशक्तिकरण (economic empowerment) सीखो और कमाओ Learn & Earn USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts / Crafts for Development) Nai Manzil Concessional credit through Minorities Development and Finance Corporation आधारिक संरचना विकास (infrastructure development) Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK) विशेष आवश्यकता (spacial need) Nai Roshni - The Leadership Development of Minority Women Hamari Dharohar Reasearch / Studies, Monitoring and Evaluation of Development Scheme Including Publicity संस्था को समर्थन (support to institution) Corpus Fund to Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF)
  4. Corpus Fund to Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF) The Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF) was established in 1989 as a voluntary, non-political, non-profit making society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. Aims & Objectives: The main objectives of MAEF are to formulate and implement educational schemes and plans for the benefit of the educationally backward minorities in particular and weaker sections in general, to facilitate establishment of residential schools, especially for girls, in order to provide modern education to them and to promote research and encourage other efforts for the benefit of educationally backward minorities. Schemes Details The Schemes of the Foundation are mainly of two types, Viz; Grants-in-aid to NGOs for construction and expansion of schools / hostels, technical / vocational training centres with emphasis on girl students and Scholarships to meritorious girl students. The various schemes run by the Foundation are as under: Financial assistance to establish/expand schools/residential schools/colleges; Financial assistance for purchase of laboratory equipment and furniture etc; Financial assistance for setting up/strengthening vocational/technical training centre/institutes; Financial assistance for construction of hostel buildings; Maulana Azad National Scholarships for meritorious girl students; Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad Literacy Awards. Advt. regarding Begum Hazrat Mahal National Scholarship scheme for the Year 2018-19.
  5. Nai Roshni - The Leadership Development of Minority Women For women empowerment, Ministry started “Nai Roshni”, a Leadership Development Programme for Minority Women in 2012-13. The objective of the scheme is to empower and instill confidence among minority women, including their neighbours from other communities living in the same village/locality, by providing knowledge, tools and techniques for interacting with Government systems, banks and other institutions at all levels. Empowerment of women per se is not only essential for equity, but also constitutes a critical element in our fight for poverty reduction, economic growth and strengthening of civil society. Women and children are always the worst sufferers in a poverty stricken family and need support. Empowering women, especially mothers, is even more important as it is in homes that she nourishes, nurture and moulds the character of her offspring. The effort would embolden minority women to move out of the confines of their home and community and assume leadership roles and assert their rights, collectively or individually, in accessing services, facilities, skills, and opportunities besides claiming their due share of development benefits of the Government for improving their lives and living conditions. “Nai Roshni” programme is run with the help of NGOs, Civil societies and Government Institutions all over the country. It includes various training modules like Leadership of women, Educational Programmes, Health and Hygiene, Swachch Bharat, Financial Literacy, Life Skills, Legal Rights of Women, Digital Literacy and Advocacy for Social and behavioural change. nai roshni guidelines17-18_0.pdf
  6. Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK) Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK) Multi-sectoral Development Programme
  7. Concessional credit through Minorities Development and Finance Corporation (NMDFC) Self Employment Lending Schemes - Credit Line 1 (NMDFC) Self Employment Lending Schemes - Credit Line 2 Virasat - Artisan Credit Scheme Promotional Schemes Kaushal Se Kushalta Scheme Marketing Assistance Scheme Mahila Samridhi Yojana Grant in Aid Assistance scheme Guidelines for Micro Financing Schemes
  8. Nai Manzil Nai Manzil - An integrated Education and Livelihood initiative for the Minority Communities Nai Manzil is a new initiative of the Government. It was launched on 8th August, 2015 at Patna, Bihar. The Scheme aims to benefit the minority youths who do not have a formal school leaving certificate, i.e those in the category of school- dropouts or educated in community education institutions like Madarsas, in order to provide them formal education and skills, and enable them to seek better employment and livelihoods in the organised sector. The Scheme has been approved with the cost of Rs.650.00 Crore for five years with 50% funding from the World Bank. The World Bank has approved the funding of US$50 million. This is the first World Bank supported programme for minority welfare in this Ministry. The scheme is also significant as it combines education with skills for school dropouts which will significantly enhance their employability. The scheme is being implemented by the Project Implementing Agencies (PIAs) who provide non- residential integrated education and skill training for 9 to 12 months, of which a minimum of 3 months be devoted to skill training compliant with the National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF). After completion of skill training according to the defined framework, the beneficiaries will be placed in jobs appropriate to their qualifications. अधिक जानकारी के लिए PDF डाउनलोड करें - Nai Manzil At Glance - As on 31st March, 2018.pdf
  9. USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts / Crafts for Development) अधिक जानकारी के लिए PDF डाउनलोड करें - USTTAD English Guidelines.pdf
  10. सीखो और कमाओ “Seekho aur Kamao (Learn & Earn)” is a scheme implemented since 2013-14 for skill development of minorities. The scheme aims at upgrading the skills of minority youth in various modern/traditional skills depending upon their qualification, present economic trends and market potential, which can earn them suitable employment or make them suitably skilled to go for self-employment. The scheme is implemented through selected expert Project Implementing Agencies (PIAs).The scheme ensures placements of minimum 75% trainees, out of which at least 50% placement is in organized sector. अधिक जानकारी के लिए PDF डाउनलोड करें - SEEKHO aur Kamao-eng.pdf
  11. Nai Udaan - Clearing Prelims conducted by UPSC , SSC, SPSC "Nai Udaan" - Support for Students clearing Prelims Conducted by UPSC/SSC,State Public Service Commission(PSC) etc.(English) Cost/Number of Beneficiaries: Every year up to 2000 candidates will be given financial support under the scheme throughout the country on fulfilling the eligibility criteria till the budgetary allocation is exhausted. Selection of the candidates will be based on first-come-firstserve basis in case of limited number of slots available for any particular community/Exam. The distribution of slots is based on the data of Census, 2011. Exam wise, physical distribution of benefits to different notified minority communities will be as follows: अधिक जानकारी के लिए PDF डाउनलोड करें - Guidelines-NaiUdaan_0.pdf
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